Adderall is a prescription stimulant composed of two chemical compounds: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
One of the functions of the drug is to treat symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. These symptoms can include trouble focusing and difficulty controlling actions or staying still.
Another reason for which clinicians may prescribe the medication is to treat narcolepsy in adults and children aged 12 or older. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that makes individuals suffer from extreme daytime sleepiness and fall asleep unexpectedly.
The dual combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine is effective because of its impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Otherwise classified as CNS stimulants, this series of drugs alters the quantity of certain natural substances in the brain to produce physiological outcomes like improved concentration or heightened alertness.
The benefits of using Adderall are a contributing factor to why many adolescents and college students in the United States use the drug. Adderall is generally perceived as a study-aid medication among students who want to pull an all-nighter and study intensely. However, as will be discussed later, long-term side effects are not completely known and continual drug use can lead to serious health consequences.
In a U.S. study analyzing trends between 2006 and 2011, individuals aged 18 to 25 were the most common age group to illegally take Adderall without a prescription.
The length of time for these drugs to take effect will vary. Adderall IR is an immediate-release pill taken 2 to 3 times per day. Adderall XR is an extended-release capsule that users take when they wake up.
Clinicians may not introduce higher doses initially to monitor response and control progress. Adderall IR and Adderall XR can have side effects, build physical dependence over time, and result in withdrawal symptoms or overdose when misused.
Adderall use can have different side effects, including:
It is important to seek medical help if any of the following serious side effects occur:
Individuals with heart defects or serious heart problems have a higher risk of sudden death, heart attacks, or strokes.
As Adderall is a prescription stimulant that affects the central nervous system, prolonged use of the drug may lead to physical tolerance and dependence (when higher doses are needed to have the same desired effects). Over time, continual use may then result in a substance use disorder (SUD).
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than one million Americans misused prescription stimulants in 2017.
Individuals considering stopping the medication should speak with a medical professional to monitor withdrawal symptoms and lower the risk of overdose.
Withdrawal symptoms include:
The body absorbs Adderall via the gastrointestinal tract. The liver then breaks down the chemical substance and excretes it through urine.
However, Adderall can be present or detected in different bodily specimens, including the hair, blood, and saliva. The following list comprises approximate windows of detection for each type of test:
This type of drug testing can detect traces of amphetamine or Adderall up to 7 days after the last use. There may be a higher concentration of the drug in a urine test, given that the body excretes it primarily through urine.
This type of drug screening is convenient, as concentrations of Adderall can be present for up to 3 months in hair follicles.
When other drug screening tests are not an option, a blood test can detect Adderall within minutes to hours.
Oral fluid screening can confirm concentrations of Adderall within 5 to 48 hours after last use.
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The estimated half-life of the main ingredient of Adderall, dextroamphetamine, is between 9-13 hours. This means that the body will eliminate at least half of this chemical compound after this time has passed.
The highest concentrations of the drug in the body’s system will occur approximately 3 hours after administration.
How long Adderall stays in your body will vary according to a number of factors, including:
If you or a loved one are suffering from an Adderall abuse, there are different options available to seek help and find relief.
Before quitting, it is recommended that you consult your nearest healthcare professional for medical advice on quitting. Prescription stimulants like Adderall can lead to a substance use disorder (addiction) and cause cravings and withdrawal symptoms.
A healthcare professional may recommend an inpatient or outpatient rehab facility to help you through detox and ensure a healthier recovery. Tapering (gradual reduction of drug dosage) may be included in your treatment plan to avoid sudden, severe withdrawal symptoms.
While there is no FDA-approved medication-assisted addiction treatment that can treat this type of drug, substance abuse treatment options include successful methods of behavioral therapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy and psychotherapy.
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“The Amphetamine Withdrawal Syndrome.” Department of Health | The Amphetamine Withdrawal Syndrome, www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-toc~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-3~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-3-7~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-3-7-aws.
Benham, Barbara. “Adderall Misuse Rising Among Young Adults.” Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 17 Feb. 2016, www.jhsph.edu/news/news-releases/2016/adderall-misuse-rising-among-young-adults.html.
“Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a601234.html.
“Hair Drug Testing.” LabCorp, www.labcorp.com/drug-testing/types-of-drug-tests/hair-drug-testing.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Commonly Used Drugs Charts.” National Institute on Drug Abuse, 12 June 2020, www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/commonly-used-drugs-charts.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. “How Can Prescription Drug Addiction Be Treated?” National Institute on Drug Abuse, 3 June 2020, www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/misuse-prescription-drugs/how-can-prescription-drug-addiction-be-treated.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. “What Is the Scope of Prescription Drug Misuse?” National Institute on Drug Abuse, 13 Apr. 2020, www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/misuse-prescription-drugs/what-scope-prescription-drug-misuse.
“Oral Fluid Drug Testing.” LabCorp, www.labcorp.com/drug-testing/types-of-drug-tests/oral-fluid-testing.