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Focalin, the brand name of dexmethylphenidate, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used to increase attention, alertness, and energy. It treats attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6 years and older, and adults. Focalin works by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, increasing their activity.
Focalin is available in two forms, including an extended-release capsule or a tablet. The dosing and length of effectiveness vary between the two formulations, and it is important to recognize the differences.
Focalin capsules (extended-release) are available in 5 mg increments beginning at 5 mg and reaching 40 mg. Depending on your needs, your doctor will prescribe the drug in the following amounts:
Focalin tablets are available in three different dosing strengths: 2.5 milligram (mg), 5 mg, and 10 mg. Depending on your needs, your doctor will prescribe the drug in the following amounts:
A study from 2018 found that about 5.1 million people (12 and older) have misused prescription stimulants in the past year. This is about 1.9 percent of the U.S. population.National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)
Focalin is prescribed to treat ADHD, a set of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that begin before age 7. The drug is often combined with educational, psychological, and social measures to create a comprehensive treatment program for patients.
The most common side effects of Focalin include:
Along with these, Focalin may cause more serious side effects, including:
Although the drug is effective in most people, there are some cases where use is not advised, including:
Focalin may exacerbate pre-existing conditions in patients, including heart problems, mental illness, seizures, and others.
Stimulants increase heart rate, and sudden death linked to heart problems has been reported with their use. Focalin should not be used in children with serious cardiac abnormalities or impaired function.
Likewise, in adults, sudden death, heart attack, and stroke have been reported at usual doses of stimulants to treat ADHD. They also have a greater chance of developing coronary artery disease, rhythmic abnormalities, and other issues compared to children.
Focalin causes a slight increase in average heart rate and blood pressure, varying between each person. All patients taking the drug should be monitored over time for larger changes in these measures.
Stimulants, including Focalin, have been shown to enhance symptoms of psychosis and bipolar disorder. Aggression and hostility have also been observed in children and teenagers with ADHD, and Focalin may contribute to these.
In patients with a history of seizures, Focalin may lower their convulsive threshold and induce seizures more often. If they occur, drug use should be stopped immediately.
In a randomized study of children ages 7 to 10, children given Focalin or control medication were followed for 14 months. On average, children who took Focalin grew 2 centimeters less and weighed 2.7 kilograms less than controls over a period of three years. Overall, this study suggests that stimulant use impacts growth in children.
Focalin can affect the metabolism of other drugs, and it should not be taken with:
Focalin and Ritalin both contain the active ingredient dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, but in different forms. Focalin is the more active chemical composition compared to Ritalin; however, both drugs are used to treat ADHD.
When someone uses a drug for an extended period of time, they become physically and psychologically dependent on it. The body needs the drug to function normally, and if use is stopped, withdrawal can set in.
Withdrawal is a set of symptoms that occur when the body goes into shock due to the absence of the drug. Symptoms of withdrawal from stimulants include:
When someone is dependent on a drug, they may use higher doses to compensate for tolerance that has built up over time. This increase in dosing can eventually lead to an overdose. Symptoms of a Focalin overdose include:
Overdoses are extremely dangerous, and if any of these symptoms occur, contact emergency medical services immediately.
Focalin can be addictive, and it is classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a Schedule II drug. These are drugs defined as, “drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence.”
Addiction is characterized by a set of behaviors surrounding drug use. Someone who is addicted to Focalin might be unable to stop using it, may continue to do so despite knowing it is harmful and may have cravings when not taking it.
Stimulants are often misused to promote alertness and focus, particularly in academics. They can also be combined with other drugs. Some people also take them to get high.
Focalin has been shown to be addictive, particularly in people who have a history of substance abuse and addiction.
Signs of addiction and abuse include:
The safest way to stop using a drug is under the care of a medical professional. Tapering is a method that decreases a drug dose over time to prevent shock to the body’s systems. This gradual process helps the brain and body adjust to the absence of a drug and prevents uncomfortable side effects.
Treatment options are available to help you or a loved one overcome addiction to Focalin. Effective methods for treating stimulant addiction include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a program centered around learning how to identify problematic behaviors in addiction and correct them. During this program, patients learn to think ahead about likely problems and how they may handle them. Examples of specific techniques are provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. They include:
Contingency management (CM) is a treatment approach that gives tangible rewards to patients to reinforce positive behaviors. It is likely that the reward given during CM stimulates the reward pathway similar to drug use, making this a useful method. Thus, it is extremely effective in encouraging patients to continue treatment and promoting abstinence from drugs.
Overcoming addiction to Focalin is difficult to do alone. Find treatment today.
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Drug Enforcement Administration. “Drug Scheduling.” DEA, https://www.dea.gov/drug-scheduling
Food and Drug Administration. “Focalin.” FDA, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/021278s015lbl.pdf
Food and Drug Administration. “Focalin XR.” FDA, Jan. 2017, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021802s033lbl.pdf
Food and Drug Administration. “Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride.)” FDA, Jan. 2019, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/010187s071s082,018029s041s051lbl.pdf
Mayo Clinic. “Dexmethylphenidate (Oral Route).” Mayo Clinic, Feb. 2020, https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/dexmethylphenidate-oral-route/description/drg-20067099
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health Annual National Report.” SAMHSA, Aug. 2019, https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/cbhsq-reports/NSDUHNationalFindingsReport2018/NSDUHNationalFindingsReport2018.pdf