How Serious is Focalin Addiction and Its Consequences?
In This Article
What is Focalin?
Focalin, the brand name of dexmethylphenidate, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It’s an FDA-approved drug that treats attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children 6 years and older.
Focalin increases attention, alertness, and energy by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, leading to elevated levels of neurotransmitters.
This increase in neurotransmitter levels helps regulate attention and impulse control, making Focalin effective in managing ADHD symptoms. It's similar to Ritalin, but it’s more potent and has a shorter duration of action.
Focalin has a faster onset of action but a shorter duration in the body. This increases the drug’s susceptibility to abuse and addiction.
Is Focalin Addictive?
Yes, Focalin can be addictive, particularly to those with a history of substance use disorder (SUD). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classified it, like other central nervous system stimulant medications, as a Schedule II controlled substance.
This classification indicates its medical uses but acknowledges its high potential for abuse. The Schedule II classification emphasizes the importance of cautious prescribing and close monitoring to prevent misuse and dependence.
Focalin use potentially leads to severe psychological or physical dependence. It’s also a "study drug" due to its ability to treat ADHD and improve focus.
In 2021, 1.3% of the United States population admitted to misusing prescription stimulants. That's approximately 3.7 million people.1
National Institute on Drug Abuse
What are Focalin Addiction Symptoms?
Addiction involves a set of behaviors surrounding drug use. Signs of Focalin abuse and addiction include:
- Increase in self-confidence and sociability
- Difficulty sleeping
- Reduced appetite
- Inability to stop use
- Continued use despite harmful effects
- Cravings when not taking the drug
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What are the Side Effects of Focalin?
Focalin’s most common side effects include:
- Increased attention
- Stomachache or nausea
- Decrease in hyperactivity
- Loss of appetite
- Dry mouth
Severe Side Effects
Along with these, Focalin may cause more serious side effects, including:
- Severe allergic reaction (difficulty breathing, rashes or hives, swelling of the face, throat or lips, and fever)
- Seizures in those who have a history of seizures
- Blurred vision or other eyesight changes
- Slowing of growth (height or weight) in children
- Weight loss
What are the Risks of Focalin?
Focalin is linked to an increased heart rate and blood pressure. Adults taking Focalin are at higher risk of several conditions, including:
- Heart attack
- Coronary artery disease
- Rhythmic abnormalities
These issues can be severe enough to cause sudden death, particularly in children with serious cardiac issues.
Focalin’s other risks include:
- Worsened symptoms of psychosis and bipolar disorder
- Increased aggression, impulsivity, and hostility in children and teenagers with ADHD
- Increased risk of seizures in people with a history of them
- Reduced growth and weight gain in children aged 7 to 102
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What are Focalin Overdose Symptoms?
When you’re dependent on a drug, you may use higher doses to compensate for tolerance that has built up over time. This increase in dosing can eventually lead to an overdose.
Symptoms of a Focalin overdose include:
- Muscle twitching
- Sweating and flushing
- Increased blood pressure (hypertension)
- Convulsions (may be followed by coma)
- Delirium and hallucinations
- Tachycardia (increased heart rate)
- Palpitations or arrhythmias
- Dilated pupils
Overdoses are extremely dangerous. If any of these symptoms occur, contact emergency medical services immediately.
What are Focalin Withdrawal Symptoms?
When you use a drug for an extended period, you become physically and psychologically dependent on it. The body needs the drug to function normally, and if you stop using it, withdrawal can set in.
Withdrawal is a set of symptoms that occur when the body reacts to the absence of the drug after prolonged use or abuse.
Symptoms of withdrawal from stimulants include:
- Changes in appetite
- Vivid, unpleasant dreams
- Psychomotor agitation (restlessness, fidgeting, fast-talking, etc.)
- Severe depression
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What are Focalin Addiction Treatment Options?
The safest way to stop using a drug is under the care of a medical professional. Tapering is a method that decreases a drug dose over time to prevent severe withdrawal symptoms.
This gradual process helps the brain and body adjust to the absence of a drug. It also prevents uncomfortable side effects.
Professional treatment options are also available to help you or a loved one overcome addiction to Focalin. Effective methods for treating stimulant addiction include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a program that teaches how to identify problematic behaviors in addiction and correct them. During this program, you learn to think ahead about likely problems and how to handle them.
Examples of specific techniques that the National Institute on Drug Abuse recommends include:
- Exploring the positive and negative outcomes due to continued drug use
- Self-monitoring, which helps you recognize cravings early on and identify situations that might put you at risk
- Developing strategies for coping with cravings to avoid high-risk situations
Contingency Management (CM)
Contingency management is a treatment approach that gives tangible rewards to reinforce positive behaviors. Your reward during a CM treatment approach stimulates the reward pathway similar to drug use, making it a helpful method to quit using the medication.
CM is extremely effective in encouraging to continue treatment and promoting abstinence from drugs. For example, you may receive a gift card for every negative drug test or points for attending counseling sessions that you can redeem for many rewards.
Residential treatment is an intensive form of addiction treatment that provides 24-hour care in a structured environment. Those with severe addiction or co-occurring mental health disorders can benefit from it as it provides a supportive setting to address complex issues and learn coping strategies.
Support groups like Narcotics Anonymous (NA) offer support, encouragement, and guidance to help you stay sober. These groups promote community and provide a platform to share experiences, struggles, and successes.
They can be an essential aspect of maintaining long-term recovery from Focalin addiction. Support groups can also help you build a network of sober peers who understand the challenges and triumphs of overcoming addiction.
What are Focalin Drug Interactions?
Focalin can affect the metabolism of other drugs, so you shouldn’t take it with:
- Blood pressure medication
- Anticoagulants (blood thinners)
- Anticonvulsants (seizure medication)
- MAO inhibitors (isocarboxazid, phenelzine, selegiline, tranylcypromine, linezolid, methylene blue, moclobemide)
- Select antidepressants (tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- Stimulants or amphetamines (including other medications used to treat ADHD such as Adderall, Concerta, or Ritalin
How is Focalin Prescribed?
The dosing and length of effectiveness vary between the two formulations of Focalin, and understanding these differences is important. Depending on your needs and ADHD symptoms, your doctor will prescribe the drug in the following amounts:
- Adults: Begins at 10 mg daily; the maximum dose is around 40 mg in one day
- Children 6 years and older: Begins at 5 mg daily; the maximum dose is around 30 mg in one day
The following table provides an overview of the dosing guidelines for Focalin tablets for both adults and children aged 6 years and older.
|User Group||Starting Dose||Frequency||Maximum Dose|
|Adults 2.5 mg||2.5 mg||Twice a day||10 mg twice a day|
|Children (6+)||2.5 mg||Twice a day||10 mg twice a day|
When is Focalin Use Not Advised?
While the drug is generally effective, doctors may advise against its use in certain cases. Avoid Focalin if you have any of the following medical conditions:
- Glaucoma: A condition that damages the optic nerve
- Agitation: Those with anxiety, agitation, and tension can experience worse symptoms
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): Using Focalin with MAOIs poses a risk of severe increase in blood pressure resulting in stroke
- Tics: Includes those with motor tics or diagnosis or family history of Tourette’s syndrome
- Raynaud's phenomenon: Includes those with blood circulation problems
- Pregnancy or breastfeeding: Focalin may pass through breast milk, so consult a doctor before use
- Heart defects: Includes those with high blood pressure, heart or blood vessel disease, an irregular heartbeat, hardened arteries, or other heart problems, as Focalin may worsen these issues
Contact your doctor and seek medical advice immediately if you or your child shows any symptoms of heart problems while taking Focalin. These include shortness of breath, chest pain, or fainting.
What is Focalin’s Role in ADHD Treatment?
Focalin treats ADHD, a set of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that begin before age 7. Physicians often combine the drug with educational, psychological, and social measures to create a comprehensive treatment program.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation manufactures the drug. It comes in two forms: an extended-release capsule (Focalin XR) and a tablet.
Focalin XR capsules are available in 5 mg increments, starting at 5 mg and going up to 40 mg. The standard Focalin tablets are available in three different dosing strengths—2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg.
Focalin is a prescription drug that treats ADHD in children and adults. However, it can also lead to serious physical and mental health risks.
Overdosing on Focalin is extremely dangerous and can result in severe symptoms. Addiction to the drug can also occur due to physical and psychological dependency.
Fortunately, many treatment options are available to help you overcome Focalin addiction. Seek professional help from a medical expert today to safely stop Focalin use and prevent any potential complications or relapse.
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- “Misuse of Prescription Drugs Research Report: What is the scope of prescription drug misuse in the United States?” National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2023.
- “Focalin” Novartis, 2021.
- “Drug Scheduling.” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.
- “Focalin.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- “Focalin XR.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2017.
- “Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride).” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019.
- “Dexmethylphenidate (Oral Route).” Mayo Clinic, 2023.