Updated on February 6, 2024
6 min read

Biofeedback Therapy: Techniques, Benefits, and Effective Treatments

What is Biofeedback Therapy (BT)?

Biofeedback Therapy (BT) is a non-pharmaceutical technique that helps people control their normally involuntary body functions. For example, it can help someone slow their heart rate or relax their muscles.

The therapy uses biofeedback devices to read and interpret information from the body. A person can adjust aspects of themselves based on this information and ultimately control their body.

Doctors are not sure exactly how Biofeedback Therapy works, but according to The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), it is most effective for treating conditions related to stress.

When stress levels rise, a person’s internal processes become irregular. BT helps control this and provides a tool for alleviating symptoms and the stress response.

Biofeedback therapy helps people change unhealthy habits by interpreting brain activity and helping people familiarize themselves with their body’s responses. The practice helps improve a patient's mindfulness and wellness.

How Does Biofeedback Therapy Work?

Biofeedback Therapy tracks the body’s involuntary functions. These include:

  • Respiration rate
  • Heart rate
  • Blood flow and pressure
  • Skin temperature
  • Muscle contractions
  • Sweating

BT machines monitor and provide information about these functions. This allows the monitored person and their therapist to interpret how the body responds provided by the machines. This information helps with planning an approach to withdrawal and recovery.

During Biofeedback Therapy, information about the person is recorded and transmitted to a monitoring box during exposure to different visual and audio stimuli. This allows a therapist and/or the observed person to identify mental activities and relaxation techniques to regulate bodily functions that normally go unnoticed and uncontrolled.

During the sessions, the person practices control and eventually learns to control their reactions without monitoring.


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Types of Biofeeback Therapy

There are three types of Biofeedback Therapy, including:

  • Thermal biofeedback (a skin temperature measurement)
  • Electromyography (a muscle tension measurement)
  • Neurofeedback (evaluates electrical brain activity)

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What Conditions Does Biofeedback Therapy Treat?

Biofeedback Therapy is used to help with substance use disorders. It allows people struggling with addiction and their therapist to recognize the body's involuntary functions that trigger substance use. BT tracks how the body reacts, tracking alcohol or drug withdrawal symptoms that cause stress and heightened involuntary responses.

Most people undergoing biofeedback training sessions see improvement in fewer than a dozen sessions. These sessions last about an hour.

Biofeedback Therapy is an effective tool for treating addiction because it enhances other therapies and allows people to feel more in control of their health and overall situation.

BT helps with the management of many different conditions, including:

  • Anxiety
  • Asthma
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Bowel movement problems such as fecal incontinence and constipation
  • Chronic Pain
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Hypertension
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Migraine and tension headaches
  • Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
  • Raynaud's Syndrome
  • Seizures
  • Side effect of Chemotherapy
  • Stress
  • Stroke
  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
  • Urinary Incontinence

It is also effective for treating addiction and substance use disorders, especially during withdrawal. BT treats common symptoms of drug withdrawal, including anxiety, depression, chronic muscle pain, and restlessness.

What are the Benefits of Using Biofeedback Therapy?

Biofeedback Therapy offers the user various benefits which appeal to many people because:

  • It is a safe, non-invasive procedure
  • It allows people to take control of their health
  • It can help eliminate or reduce the need for medicines
  • It can help enhance the effects of certain medications
  • It is beneficial for people who cannot take medications (like pregnant women)

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Are There Any Risks Associated with Biofeedback Therapy?

Most medical experts believe that any risk associated with Biofeedback Therapy is low. According to the Mayo Clinic, it is generally safe, and there are no reports of negative side effects. However, this doesn’t mean the treatment is for everyone. 

The effectiveness of treatment like Biotherapy Feedback is determined by how comfortable someone is using it.

How Many Biofeedback Therapy Sessions Do You Need?

Biofeedback therapy sessions usually last between 30 minutes and one hour. For some medical conditions, people experience relief in eight to ten sessions. For other conditions, like high blood pressure, patients may require 20 sessions to see improvements.

Generally, the length and number of sessions you require depends on your condition and how quickly you learn to control your physical responses.

Alongside biofeedback therapy sessions will be mental and relaxation activities that the patient will need to complete at home for five to ten minutes a day.

How Do You Prepare for Biofeedback Therapy?

You do not need to do any special preparation for biofeedback therapy. To find a suitable biofeedback therapist, speak with your doctor or another healthcare professional. They should recommend someone who has experience treating your condition.

Many biofeedback therapists and practitioners are licensed in another healthcare sector, such as psychology, nursing, or physical therapy. State laws regulating biofeedback therapists vary. Some biofeedback practitioners decide to become certified to display their additional training and experience in their practice.

Ask a biofeedback therapist you are considering questions before treatment, like:

  • Are you licensed, certified, or registered?
  • What is your experience level?
  • Do you have experience treating biofeedback for my condition?
  • How many biofeedback sessions do you think I will need?
  • How much does biofeedback therapy cost, and does health insurance cover it?
  • Do you have a list of references?

What Can You Expect From Biofeedback Therapy?

During a biofeedback session, a therapist fits electrical sensors to various parts of your body. These electrodes may be used to monitor your brain waves, muscle tension, breathing, heart rate, and skin temperature.

This information relays to you via cues, such as adjustments on a monitor, a beeping noise, or a flashing light. The feedback teaches you to shift or control your body’s reactions by changing your thoughts, behavior, or emotions. This can help the condition that you sought treatment for.

The goal of biofeedback is to learn to use these methods at home without professional help to improve your mindfulness and well-being.

If biofeedback works efficiently for you, it may help you control symptoms of your condition or reduce the amount of medicine you take.

With enough practice, you can try the biofeedback techniques you learn alone. However, do not stop the medical treatment for your condition without discussing it with your care team.

Biofeedback Therapy Methods, Techniques & Exercises

Several different factors can be tracked by biofeedback. These include:

  • Measuring brain waves
  • Monitoring respiration rate and breathing patterns
  • Detecting heart rate variations
  • Evaluating muscle contractions
  • Measuring the activity of sweat glands
  • Monitoring temperature increases and decreases

Biofeedback Therapy is available in physical therapy clinics, medical centers, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other locations. Devices can also be worn and used at home. However, BT is usually administered by a medical professional with specialized equipment.

The at-home devices are supplemental and alert the wearer to changes in their body so they can adjust to these changes accordingly. Medical professionals typically monitor Biofeedback Therapy devices used for treating substance use disorders. 

If you're looking for a qualified biofeedback provider, the Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback is a great place to start.

Biofeedback Therapy Treatment Combinations

Biofeedback Therapy is most often used in combination with other drug and alcohol treatment options. It is also a replacement for more invasive treatment or treatment options that trigger negative side effects.

BT gives people with substance abuse disorders and mental health conditions an edge in beating their addiction. It provides them with additional information for managing their disorder and understanding how their addiction affects their minds and bodies.

Knowing how addiction affects the body and finding ways to manage those effects helps with recovery. Biofeedback is a management tool.

It also helps people with a drug or alcohol addiction manage co-occurring disorders, such as PTSD, ADHD, and more.

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Updated on February 6, 2024
10 sources cited
Updated on February 6, 2024
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