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What is Equine Therapy?
Equine therapy incorporates horses into the therapeutic process. People engage in horse-related activities, including grooming, feeding, and riding a horse. A mental health professional supervises these activities.
Equine-assisted therapy aims to help people develop specific skills and ways of thinking. These skills include:
- Increased self-esteem
- Emotional growth
- A focus on well-being
- Social skills
Mature horses can weigh between 900 and 2,000 pounds, sometimes more. Initially, it may sound daunting having such a large animal involved in your therapy sessions.
However, horse therapy is popular because of its experiential approach. Many people find that working with horses makes them feel calm and mentally balanced.
There are other types of animal-assisted therapy sessions available as well. Elephants, dolphins, dogs, and cats can also be used in therapy. However, horse therapy is the most popular.
Horses provide instant feedback to a person’s actions. They can also mirror the feelings of the handler or rider. Their magnificent appearance forces people to develop trust around them.
Equine-assisted therapy is used in different types of populations and various settings. Horse therapy is popular in counseling for people of all ages. Families and groups can also use it.
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The History of Equine Therapy
Equine-assisted therapy dates back to when horses were involved in therapeutic riding in ancient Greek literature back in 600 B.C. In 1945, it was used in Scandinavia following an outbreak of polio. It was introduced in North America in 1960, when it was initially used to treat disabled people.
Mental Health and Equine Therapy
Equine-assisted therapy helps manage several mental health issues. Here are a couple of mental health disorders that horse therapy can help with:
Anxiety affects more than 17 million Americans. While most people have some level of anxiety throughout their lives, some experience clinical anxiety that significantly affects their lives.
Many people who battle anxiety worry about their past and fear for their future. However, working with horses can help people stay present and focus on relevant activities at hand.
Horses are sensitive to behaviors and feelings. They can sense dangers easily. This usually results in a change in their behavior and can lead them to try to escape.
Many people who experience anxiety can relate to this way of sensing danger and respond similarly.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
There are a variety of traumatic events that can lead to PTSD. However, people who have experienced sexual assault, and combat veterans, tend to have it at higher rates.
Equine therapy has become popular as a mental health treatment for PTSD. Many people with PTSD believe they can never bond with someone again to develop a personal connection.
But when spending time with horses, people with PTSD may develop emotional growth. They can then take that progress and apply it to the rest of their lives and their relationships.
Around seven to eight percent of the United States population will experience PTSD at some point in their lives.U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019
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Benefits of Equine Therapy for Drug Addiction
Equine-assisted psychotherapy provides a unique approach to treating drug addiction and co-occurring mental health conditions. A co-occurring condition refers to when someone experiences mental illness as well as addiction.
There are numerous benefits of equine therapy for drug addiction. Horse therapy can help people develop a sense of trust through their interactions with horses. They can gain an understanding of safety and create a relationship with the creatures.
Like with other types of animal-assisted therapy, horses can soothe and relax people. Horses can help to alleviate pain, boost mood, and reduce stress.
With help from a mental health professional, the experience can help clients allow themselves to be vulnerable as they learn new social skills.
During drug treatment, equine therapy offers recovering substance abusers a new focus. This new perspective helps patients reduce their substance abuse and other unhealthy behaviors.
During an equine therapy program, patients learn to take responsibility for their actions and maintain a consistent schedule.
A successful treatment plan usually involves counseling and other talk therapy techniques too. This treatment combination encourages substance abuse patients to evaluate their lives, actions, and future.
Types of Equine-Assisted Activities
Equine-assisted activities are any specific activities that involve the use of horses for therapeutic value. Equine-assisted activities can include grooming and stable management, shows, parades, demonstrations, and more.
Therapeutic Horseback Riding
Therapeutic riding contributes positively to the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social well-being of patients. A riding instructor monitors the treatment of the patient.
The term hippotherapy comes from the Greek word hippos. This translates to a horse.
Hippotherapy is a physical, occupational, or talk therapy treatment. It focuses on equine movement.
The following health professionals often use equine therapy treatment:
- Occupational therapist
- Physical therapist
- Speech and language pathologist
- Equine therapist
These groups use hippotherapy to address impairments, disabilities, functional limitations, and disabilities in people with neuromotor and sensory dysfunction.
For example, hippotherapy is often used to treat people with cerebral palsy. This treatment is often used as part of a broader program.
Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP)
Equine-facilitated psychotherapy is an interactive treatment. A mental health worker or equine professional works with clients and suitable horses to address psychotherapy goals.
Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)
Equine-assisted learning is an experimental treatment for growth and development. The process encourages the development of life skills for educational, professional, and personal goals through equine-related activities.
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- Shelef, Assaf, et al. “Equine Assisted Therapy for Patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series Study.” Military Medicine, vol. 184, no. 9-10, 2019, pp. 394–399.
- "How Common Is PTSD in Adults?" 2018.
- “Generalized Anxiety Disorder.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- Jang, Byongsu, et al. “Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapy for Treating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 21, no. 9, 2015, pp. 546–553.
- Trotter, Kay Sudekum. “A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with at-Risk Children and Adolescents.” Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, vol. 3, no. 3, 2008, pp. 254–284.
- Hauge, Hilde. “Equine-Assisted Activities and the Impact on Perceived Social Support, Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy among Adolescents – an Intervention Study.” International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, vol. 19, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1–21.
- Naste, Tiffany M. “Equine Facilitated Therapy for Complex Trauma (EFT-CT).” Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, vol. 11, no. 3, 2017, pp. 289–303.
- Kern-Godal, Ann, et al. “More than Just a Break from Treatment: How Substance Use Disorder Patients Experience the Stable Environment in Horse-Assisted Therapy.” Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, Jan. 2016.